5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors
Are drugs, which are prescribed for benign prostate enlargement. At best, they affect a slight shrinkage of the enlarged prostate
Acute Urinary Retention
A man’s sudden inability to pass urine deliberately although he feels a strong, painful need to urinate is referred to as acute urinary retention. This type of urinary retention must be treated immediately by a doctor. In this case, a doctor would have to insert a catheter so that the urine can flow from the bladder into a drainage bag in order to relieve the patient’s pain. Acute urinary retention is a late stage symptom of benign prostate enlargement.
Alpha blockers are non-herbal drugs, which are prescribed for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (BPH). They relax the prostate musculature. Alpha blockers do not inhibit the growth of the prostate nor do they affect a shrinking of the gland. There are frequent side effects.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
A Latin word for: a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate. Often the abbreviation BPH is used.
A catheter is a silicon-coated, soft rubber tube that creates a connection to the bladder. Urine can flow through the catheter into a drainage bag. There are lubricated catheters that are inserted into the bladder through the urethra (transurethral) or soft catheters that are inserted into the bladder through the lower abdominal wall using a local anaesthetic (suprapubic catheter or stomach catheter).
A blood transfusion is the transfer of blood from a donor or one’s own blood if acute anaemia exists, e.g., during surgery.
BPH is the abbreviation for benign prostatic hyperplasia, the non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate. BPH causes older men to have problems passing urine.
Catheters are usual flexible hollow instruments. Physicians use catheters to gain access to hollow organs (bladder, stomach, arteries) or natural body cavities (abdominal cavity, brain cavities). Catheters are also used to drain bodily fluids or secretions. See bladder catheter.
A Latin word for male menopause. Physicians define climacteric virile as that time in a man’s life when changes in sexual hormones can be ascertained. The consequences of these changes are, among other things, benign enlargement of the prostate.
An examination of the bladder with a bladder endoscope (cystoscope). The endoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra.
Digital Rectal Examination
Examination of the prostate whereby the prostate is probed by inserting an index finger into the rectum.
Dribbling is the continued, involuntary loss of urine, drop-by-drop. The bladder is filled with urine and the patient cannot pass water on his own. The reason for this ischuria is usually an enlarged prostate. Dribbling should be treated immediately.
When no seminal fluid exits the penis during male orgasm. In medical terms it is called a retrograde ejaculation, a frequent side effect of prostate surgery.
Medical: painful urination (such as burning, painful need to pass urine).
During a man’s orgasm, muscle contractions squeeze the seminal fluid through the urethra. This is called ejaculation.
The cutting out of tissue. Electroresection is often carried out during the endoscopy of benign prostate enlargement (see TURP).
When a doctor operates using an endoscope. An endoscope is a hollow instrument, which enables the surgeon to see into a body cavity (abdominal cavity, stomach, colon, bladder or urethra). Operations can be carried out with small instruments that are guided through the endoscope. The GreenLight laser procedure of benign prostate enlargement is also an endoscopic procedure through the urethra.
A man’s inability to achieve or sustain an erection.
The enlarging and stiffening of the male sexual organ during sexual arousal.
The Greenlight laser is a laser system that is also called Neodym:YAG (KTP) laser system. The Greenlight laser was especially developed for the minimal invasive therapy of BPH. Prof. Dr. Malek from the MAYO Clinic, Rochester, USA and his team developed the Greenlight laser in co-operation with Laserscope®, a manufacturer from San Jose, California.
GreenLight PVP™ stands for GreenLight photoselective vaporisation of the prostate. GreenLight PVP™ is a registered trademark of Laserscope, San Jose, USA.
Interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate. ILC was the established laser therapy for benign prostate enlargement (BPH). A fibre optic probe is introduced to the prostate endoscopically, where it is repeated injected into the tissue. Then intense heat is applied to the injected areas. The obstructive prostate tissue dies off and the prostate shrinks. The urine stream becomes stronger and the typical prostate symptoms abate.
Impotence is a man’s inability to achieve or maintain an erection. He is no longer able to have sexual intercourse.
Involuntary loss of urine via the urethra when the bladder sphincter can no longer hold back the urine. There are many causes for incontinence. Advanced stages of benign prostate enlargement (BPH) can also cause dribbling; when the quantity of retained urine is so large that the bladder overflows. This requires the immediate help of an urologist.
KTP is the abbreviation for potassium titanyl phosphate. KTP is a crystal that can be embedded in a laser (e.g., Neodym:YAG laser) and doubles the beam’s wavelength. It converts the invisible light of the Neodym:YAG lasers (wave length 1065 nm) into visible green light (wavelength 532 nm). KTP laser vaporisation of the prostate uses this effect to operate without bleeding.
KTP Laser Vaporisation
KTP laser vaporisation is the instantaneous vaporisation of tissue when the surgeon uses a KTP laser.
The word laser is not actually a word, but the abbreviation L.A.S.E.R. that stands for „Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”. The bundled energy of the laser beam is not used only in medicine, but also for many industrial processes that require a high level of precision and energy.
The MAYO Clinic consists of three clinics. The best known of these is the MAYO Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, USA. The MAYO Clinic is one of the most famous clinics in the world. Respectability, innovative research and reliability are the acknowledged hallmarks of this clinic. Its international reputation is founded on numerous excellent scientific achievements in the area of medicine. Many of these achievements have become part of modern medicine.
Micturition is the scientific word for passing urine. It means the natural emptying of the bladder. Micturition dysfunction is when natural urination is not possible.
The most important element of a Neodym:YAG laser compatible semiconductor material, Neodym, which is imbedded in a metal grille (yttrium aluminium garnet) and emits a light in the infrared spectrum (wavelength 1064 nm).
Passing urine at night is called nocturia. Some men with BPH have to get up frequently at night to pass urine. This disturbs their restorative sleep and leads to constant fatigue during the day.
Female sexual hormone. It also plays a minor role in the male body.
A nearly complete blockage of the urine flow can lead to overflow incontinence. A patient with overflow incontinence has a constant sensation of a full bladder accompanied with a very painful stretching of the bladder. The continual urge to urinate without being able to pass urine deliberately causes the affected person suffering day and night with constant, involuntary urination. This type of urinary retention must be treated immediately by a doctor.
Phytosterols are substances in certain plants, which are used to relieve the symptoms of BPH.
Prostate adenomectomy is an operation of the prostate enlargement in which the obstructive prostate tissue is removed via an incision in the lower abdomen. A procedure that is only rarely recommended for very large prostate glands.
Another word for malignant prostate disease, prostate cancer.
Malignant enlargement of the prostate, prostate cancer, prostate ca.
Another word for Prostate cancer or Prostate-Ca
PSA is a prostate specific antigen. PSA is a protein that is only produced in the prostate and discharged into the bloodstream. Therefore, a blood test can determine the PSA level. A higher than normal level can be an indication of prostate cancer.
Puberty is the age at which a young person attains sexual maturity. This is when the inner and outer sexual organs grow and mature. People are capable of reproduction at the end of puberty. Puberty lasts about two years and begins earlier for girls than boys.
Is a form of anaesthesia that is injected into the spine. The best-known types of regional anaesthesia are spinal, lumbal or peridural anaesthesia. It is also known as epidural anaesthesia. This form of anaesthesia, the parts of the body below the injection point are numb and no pain is felt. The effect subsides after one or two hours.
Urine remaining in the bladder after passing urine. The amount of residual urine can vary. More than 100 ml residual urine require treatment of the prostate.
Normally during orgasm sperm is discharged through the urethra. Often after prostate surgery sperm will be discharged but not reach the end of the urethra, instead it is ejected into the bladder. During this ‘change of direction’, a man will feel his orgasm, but no sperm is discharged from the urethra. This is also referred to as a ‘dry orgasm’. The semen will be discharged from the body the next time urine is passed. There is no medical risk involved.
Examination using ultrasonic waves, also called ultrasound. Sonography makes organs visible. This examination is not harmful.
Suprapubic Bladder Catheter
A suprapubic bladder catheter is used to drain urine from the bladder when the urethra is blocked (if the prostate is very enlarged). Using a local anaesthetic, the catheter is inserted into the lower abdominal wall. It is also called a Cystofix or stomach catheter.
All signs of sickness are called symptoms. Typical symptoms caused by the benign hyperplasia of the prostate (BPH) are: a weak stream, dribbling, frequent and sudden need to pass urine.
Male sexual hormone that is created in the testicles. Testosterone also intensifies the benign and malignant growth of the prostate.
Treatment of an illness.
Latin: through the urethra. A catheter can be inserted into the bladder through the urethra – transurethrally. A prostate procedure can be conducted through the urethra using a special endoscope, without necessitating an abdominal incision. Example: transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
The transurethral catheter (see bladder catheter) is a soft, silicon-coated rubber tube is inserted into the bladder through the urethra (transurethral) in order to drain the urine.
Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy (TUMT) a procedure in which a special catheter enables the enlarged prostate to be flooded with microwave energy. This leads to a decrease of the obstructive prostate tissue and a lessening of the symptoms when passing urine.
Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA) heats benign obstructive prostate tissue using 2 thin needles, which with the aid of an endoscope, can pierce various parts of the prostate. The heat causes a delayed shrinking of the prostate tissue.
The TUR syndrome is a dangerous complication of TUR-Prostate. Irrigating fluid is absorbed during the operation. The consequences can be: dangerously high blood pressure, life-threatening fluid retention in the lungs and decrease of body sodium.
Transurethral Prostate Resection (TUR-Prostate). A surgical method in which an electric cutting loop shaves of inner layers of an obstructed prostate.
Stricture is the extreme narrowing of a hollow organ. 15% of all cases result in a urethral constriction several weeks or months after a prostate operation, such as TUR-Prostate. The urine cannot flow freely. Elimination of the stricture requires a minor operation. Urethral constriction tends to recur repeatedly.
An endoscopic examination of the urethra and bladder.
When urine remains in the bladder after urinating and cannot be emptied by pressing. The amount of retained urine can vary. Retention of over 100ml requires treatment of the prostate. Without treatment, very large quantities can lead to acute urinary retention. This is the complete inability to pass water. This requires urgent medical attention.
Examinations dealing with how the body stores and releases urine.
Uroflowmetry is a diagnostic test used to measure the flow of urine. The patient empties his filled bladder into a funnel, which measures the urine stream and flow rate.
A radiograph (x-ray) of the kidneys and urinary tract. A radiopaque agent is injected in to the bloodstream.
The intense, bundled energy of a laser beam is pointed at tissue, the tissue gets extremely hot and instantly vaporises. This characteristic of the Greenlight Laser System is used for the minimally invasive treatment of BPH.